WHO | Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean

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Measuring transparency to improve good governance in public pharmaceutical sector

This series of reports present the results of transparency assessments carried out in Jordan, Lebanon and Syrian Arab Republic. It provides a comprehensive picture of the level of transparency and the potential vulnerability to corruption of six essential functions of the public pharmaceutical sector – registration, promotion, inspection, selection, procurement and distribution of medicines.

Thumbnail of Measuring transparency to improve good governance in the public pharmaceutical sector in Jordan

Measuring transparency to improve good governance in the public pharmaceutical sector in Jordan [pdf 109Mb]

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Measuring transparency to improve good governance in the public pharmaceutical sector in Lebanon [pdf 1009kb]

Thumbnail of Measuring transparency to improve good governance in the public pharmaceutical sector in the Syrian Arab Republic

Measuring transparency to improve good governance in the public pharmaceutical sector in Syrian Arab Republic [pdf 144Mb]

Medicine pricing

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Medicine prices, availability, affordability and price components: a synthesis report of medicine price surveys undertaken in selected countries of the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region [pdf 8.83Mb] 

Rapidly rising costs of health care and high medicine prices are a growing concern worldwide, especially in developing and transitional countries where patients often have to pay the full price of medicines. The World Health Organization (WHO) and Health Action International (HAI) have published a summary report of findings from medicine price surveys undertaken in 2004 and 2005, using the WHO/HAI price survey methodology. The following report provides a summary of the results of medicine price and availability surveys carried in the Region.

Survey results by country

Islamic Republic of Iran [pdf 213kb] - Jordan [pdf 382kb] - Kuwait [pdf 465kb] - Lebanon [pdf 291kb] - Morocco [pdf 425kb] - Pakistan [pdf 509kb] - Syrian Arab Republic [pdf 245kb] - Tunisia [pdf 405kb] - United Arab Emirates [pdf 340kb] - Yemen [pdf 404kb]

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Price, availability and affordability: an international comparison of chronic disease medicines [pdf 976kb]

This report was prepared for the WHO Planning Meeting on the Global Initiative for Treatment of Chronic Diseases held in Cairo in December 2005. The report documents the situation in 30 countries covering all six WHO Regions. It identifies serious gaps in availability in the public sector, and high prices, and thus poor affordability, in the private sector in most countries.

WHO headquarter's publications

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Promoting Access to Medical Technologies and Innovation. Intersections Between Public Health, Intellectual Property and Trade [pdf 8.71Mb]

This publication is the product of extensive collaboration between the World Health Organization, World Intellectual Property Organization and World Trade Organization Secretariats. It has been prepared as a capacity-building resource for policy-makers and captures a broad range of experience in dealing with the interplay between intellectual property, trade rules and the dynamics of access to, and innovation in, medical technologies.

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WHO medicines strategy; countries at the core 2004–2007

This strategy provides a framework for WHO countries and partners to maximize pharmaceutical potential to reduce excess mortality and morbidity, especially among impoverished populations. It is based on four key objectives: improving access to essential medicines; and strengthening national medicines policy, the quality and safety of medicines, and their rational use.

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Continuity and change; implementing the third WHO medicines strategy 2008–2013

This strategy provides practical guidance to WHO and stakeholders on how the essential medicines concept and WHO’s expertise will be used to promote universal access and patient-centred health care for all. It presents priorities for action by the WHO as a guide for future investment and planning decisions, and serves as a user-friendly document for stakeholders. 

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National policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicinesReport of a WHO global survey

In a global survey conducted by WHO, sixteen of the Eastern Mediterranean Region's 22 countries responded. This report provides a summary of the traditional medicines situations in these countries according to selected WHO indicators.

Essential medicines training resources

National essential medicines lists

Journals

Dictionaries of pharmaceutical terms