Salmonella typhi, the typhoid bacillus. It is characterized by the sudden onset of sustained fever, severe headache, nausea, loss of appetite, constipation or sometimes diarrhoea.Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection of the intestinal tract and bloodstream caused by
It is transmitted from faeces to ingestion. Clean water, hygiene and good sanitation prevent the spread of typhoid and paratyphoid. Contaminated water is one of the pathways of transmission of the disease.
Typhoid fever is common in less-industrialized countries, principally owing to the problem of unsafe drinking-water, inadequate sewage disposal and flooding.
Control measures to combat typhoid include health education and antibiotic treatment. A vaccine is available, although it is not routinely recommended except for those who will have prolonged exposure to potentially contaminated food and water in high-risk areas. The vaccine does not provide full protection from infection.