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Sudan initiated polio eradication efforts in 1994. The last endogenous wild poliovirus case was reported in 2001. An importation in 2004 led to an outbreak that spread to other countries in the Horn of Africa. The last case in the 2004–2005 outbreak was reported in June 2005. Sudan subsequently had importations of wild poliovirus in 2007 and 2008, with one and two cases, respectively. The last wild poliovirus outbreak was in 2009, when an importation led to five cases in two states. The genomic sequencing indicated a link with wild poliovirus circulating in South Sudan. The last reported wild poliovirus case was reported in March 2009. Sudan has been polio-free since then. 

Routine immunization

The Expanded Programme on Immunization started in 1976. The strength of the routine immunization programme and high level of population immunity have been the key factors to limiting circulation of wild poliovirus despite repeated importations over the last decade.  

National immunization days

Since 1994, Sudan has conducted national immunization days. Following the last outbreak which ended in 2009, Sudan has conducted national immunization days at least twice annually and subnational immunization days in high-risk states (e.g. Darfur states bordering Chad) to boost population immunity. Post-campaign finger-marking by independent monitoring routinely demonstrates coverage rates above 90%.

Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance

Although acute flaccid paralysis surveillance was started in 1996, Sudan intensified surveillance activities in 1999. The acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system consistently meets global certification standards at national and subnational levels for both the non-polio acute flaccid paralysis case rate (≥2 per 100 000) and stool specimen adequacy (80%). 

Country indicators


Sudan's national poliovirus laboratory in Khartoum is a WHO-accredited laboratory and part of the Eastern Mediterranean Region poliovirus laboratories network. 

Phase 1 of laboratory containment of polioviruses has been completed and a report documenting the quality of containment activities has been submitted to WHO. 

Related links

WHO Sudan country office 

Sudan certification status

Routine immunization

Targets and percentage coverage by supplementary immunization activity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region by year

Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance indicators in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

Indicators and information

Wild polio cases by country in the Region for 2017–2018


P1 Total



14 14


8 8

Total 2017

22 22



21 21


12 12

Total 2018

33 33



2 2


4 4

Total 2019 (up to 17 February 2019)

6 6

Polio Fax issues

Middle East Polio Technical Bulletin

Surveillance Indicators

Supplementary Immunization Activities

Routine immunization
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