Grippe aviaire


Poulets dans une cageLes crises liées à la grippe aviaire ont eu des répercussions économiques dans plusieurs pays de la Région. Crédit photo : OMS.La grippe aviaire (H5N1) est une maladie causée par plusieurs types de virus et qui touche d'abord les oiseaux. La grippe aviaire hautement pathogène est très contagieuse et concerne les oiseaux et volailles, avec quelques cas d'infection chez l'homme. Tous les cas d'infection chez l'homme sont survenus lors de flambées épidémiques chez des volailles. Depuis la première apparition au Viet-Nam, en 2003, des flambées et des décès ont été signalés dans quinze pays d'Asie, d'Europe, du Moyen-Orient et d'Afrique : sur ces 603 cas d'infection chez l'homme, 356 se sont révélés mortels.

La grippe aviaire hautement pathogène H5N1 s'est propagée rapidement dans toute la Région de la Méditerranée orientale en 2006 ; d'importantes épizooties ont été signalées en Égypte, en Iraq, en Jordanie, dans le Territoire palestinien occupé, en Afghanistan, au Pakistan, à Djibouti et au Soudan. Des cas de transmission du virus H5N1 de l'oiseau à l'homme ont été confirmés en Iraq, en Égypte, à Djibouti et au Pakistan. L'Égypte était le pays le plus touché de la Région, avec une situation endémique qui n'a pas cessé, de fréquentes épizooties et 167 cas d'infection chez l'homme, dont 60 décès.

Les symptômes de l'infection chez l'homme sont la toux, les douleurs musculaires, le nez qui coule et le mal de gorge. Une complication comme la pneumonie peut être sévère et engager le pronostic vital.

Regional situation update

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03 Octobre 2016

Avian influenza A(H5N1) situation update, Egypt, September 2016

Highlights 356 human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) were reported in Egypt between 9 March 2006 and 30 September 2016. Of these cases, 121 were fatal (case–fatality rate: 34%). The country has been reporting sporadic cases since the beginning of 2016. A total of 10 cases were reported during the period from 1 January 2016 to 30 September 2016, including 4 deaths (case–fatality rate: 40%).  The last case was reported on 28 July 2016.  Among the reported cases in 2014 up until 30 September 2016 (n=183), the majority of cases were female (60%). The death rate was almost similar among both male...

15 Avril 2016

Avian influenza A(H5N1) update, 31 March 2016

15 April 2016 – An upsurge of human infections with the highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus was recorded in Egypt during the 2014–2015 winter season but no change in transmission pattern of infection was observed. 350 cumulative cases of human avian influenza A (H5N1) and 117 deaths (case–fatality rate 33%) were reported from Egypt as of 24 March 2016. 4 newly confirmed human H5N1 avian influenza cases were reported from Cairo, Giza and Sohag governorates in the first quarter of 2016. Djibouti and Iraq reported only 4 cases (with 2 deaths) of human avian influenza A (H5N1) in 2006. 3 laboratory-confirmed cases of...

05 Juillet 2015

Avian influenza A(H5N1) in Egypt, 31 May 2015

A total of 342 human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) were reported in Egypt between March 2006 to 30 April 2015. Of these cases, 115 were fatal (CFR: 33.6%). The country has experienced a surge of human cases since November 2014. A total of 163 cases including 47 deaths (CFR: 28.8%) were reported between 01 November 2014 to 30 April 2015. Cases have been reported from 21 out of 29 governorates in the country. The date of symptoms onset of last reported case of avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in the country was 6th of April 2015. After the laboratory...

09 Avril 2015

Avian influenza A(H5N1) in Egypt, 9 April 2015

08 April 2015 - The Ministry of Health and Population of Egypt has notified WHO of additional laboratory-confirmed human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) during the last few weeks. With this additional number, the total number of cases reported during the month of March 2015 now stands at 30 cases, including 4 deaths. This increase in reported human cases has been observed since the beginning of November last year.  Since its introduction in Egypt in 2006, avian influenza A(H5N1) virus has been circulating in domestic poultry in the country and has been the source of sporadic human infections. Almost all cases of...

21 Mars 2015

21 March 2015 | The Ministry of Health and Population of Egypt has notified the World Health Organization (WHO) of an additional 17 human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1).  With these new cases, the total number of avian influenza A (H5N1) cases in Egypt stands at 116, including 36 deaths for the period of 1 January to 17 March 2015. Since it was first reported in March 2006, a total of 318 human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1), including 112 related deaths (case–fatality rate = 35.2%) have been reported in Egypt.  Among these newly reported human cases of avian influenza A (H5N1),...

15 Mars 2015

Avian influenza A(H5N1) in Egypt, 14 March 2015

14 March 2015 – The Ministry of Health and Population of Egypt has notified WHO of an increase in laboratory-confirmed human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) in recent months. This increase in reported human cases has been observed since the beginning of November last year.  In November 2014, the number of human cases officially reported by the Ministry of Health and Population of Egypt was 10, followed by 24 cases in December. The number of cases reported in January 2015 was 45 and in February a total of 36 human cases were reported. This rise is the biggest ever in avian influenza...

16 Juin 2013

Update on avian influenza in Egypt, March–May 2013

From March to May 2013, the Ministry of Health and Population in Egypt has reported three new cases of human infections with avian influenza A(H5N1) virus to WHO. The first case was a 40-year-old female, from Bagoor district of Menofia governorate. She developed symptoms on 3 March, was admitted to Menoof fever hospital on 8 March. She recovered fully. The second case was a 26-year-old male, from Elmanzala district of Dakahliya governorate. He developed symptoms on 30 March 2013, was admitted at Aleman private hospital on 5 April and died on 8 April. The third case was a 25-year-old female, from Gohina...

25 Février 2013

Avian influenza in Egypt, 25 February 2013

On 27 January 2013, the Ministry of Health in Egypt informed WHO of a laboratory-confirmed cases of avian influenza A (H5N1). The patient was a 36-year-old female from Delengat district of Behera governorate. She developed symptoms on 16 January and was admitted to hospital in a critical condition. The patient received antiviral treatment on 20 January but died on 26 January 2013. Investigation into the source of infection revealed that she had contact with sick and dead poultry prior to developing the symptoms. With this latest case, a total of 170 cases of avian influenza A (H5N1) have been laboratory-confirmed so far....

12 Mai 2012

12 April 2012 – The Ministry of Health and Population of Egypt notified WHO of a new case of human infection with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. The patient was a 36-year-old woman from the Giza governorate. She developed symptoms on 1 April 2012 and was admitted to a hospital on 7 April 2012. She died on the same day. The case was confirmed by the Central Public Health Laboratories; a National Influenza Centre of the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network. Epidemiological investigations into the source of infection indicate that the case had exposure to backyard poultry. Of the 167 cases confirmed to date...