Interventions for the control of human African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, are dwindling. This could lead to a new epidemic. A resurgence is already occurring as evinced by the figures for 2011 where the number of cases reported is 1.45 times higher than the previous year (from 180 in 2010 to 261 in 2011). The disease is transmitted by the tsetse fly and is 100% fatal without treatment. It is endemic in Greater Equatoria State and currently on the rise in South Sudan.
A recent article published by WHO in PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases addresses the issue of how to prevent a new epidemic of the disease. Unless urgent action is taken to improve the control of sleeping sickness in South Sudan, another devastating epidemic could kill thousands of people.